The Golden Ring
Saturday 18 November 2017
The filming of 1964’s recording session of the Solti/Culshaw Götterdämmerung
This was a wonderful documentary of how a great recording was made. The BBC TV documentary showed us behind the scenes of the recording of the final opera of Wagner’s Ring – Götterdämmerung – for Decca Records in the early 1960s.
It is an engaging documentary; producer John Culshaw looks as if he is commanding an army with huge amounts of logistics and it is enjoyable as we see him cajole Maestro Georg Solti and the great singing cast. It is an amazing look into the story behind one of the greatest classical recordings in history, with plenty of time to watch and listen to the music as well.
It is an 88 minute DVD, filmed in Vienna with Sir George Solti conducting the Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra. The Sofiensaal, Vienna, was the site of recording (see photographs below). The singers are Birgit Nilsson (Brünnhilde), Wolfgang Windgassen (Siegfried), Gottlob Frick (Hagen), Dietrich Fischer-Dieskau (Gunter) and Claire Watson (Gutrune). Solti talks intelligently about the difficulties of recording and why he chose the Vienna Philharmonic – it has a warm, sweet Wagner sound; the Berlin has a sharper, brass sound. Nilsson gave insight into the difference from a singer’s perspective between an onstage performance and a studio recording. Culshaw is very surprising – a real recording supremo. It was intriguing seeing him tell Solti what tempo to take for the funeral march and as well as the fact that it is Culshaw, rather than Solti, who dictates which takes make it to the final recording pressing.
For me, some of the wonderful, eye-opening proceedings one saw were:
- Dietrich Fischer-Dieskau smoking – and it did not affect his great voice. There was a smoke haze over the orchestra most of the time from so many of the members also smoking.
- The singers moving about as they would do on an opera stage; not remaining in a static position before a microphone.
- Culshaw’s insistence in following all of Wagner’s staging and instrumental instructions as faithfully as possible.
- The local Vienna police department stopping the traffic outside the recording studio – “it only costs a couple of bottles of cognac a session”.
- The practical joke played on Birgit Nilsson during her singing Brünnhilde’s immolation scene; a real horse was brought into the studio just as Brünnhilde was about to ride her horse, Grane, into the funeral pyre!
I could only see one woman in the orchestra – the third harp player to the right side of Maestro Solti. Interestingly, it was a harpist, Anna Lelkes, who was the first female given permanent membership of the Vienna Philharmonic in 1997. Previously a female player was considered as an adjunct player. Took a long time in Vienna!
The singers were the best of their generation, and some without peer even today.
Watching Solti conduct with such aerobic style and ‘High Priests and Priestesses of Perfection’ made it wonderful afternoon.
Review by Paul Caesar
Das Liebesverbot screening
Saturday 21 October 2017
The DVD of Das Liebesverbot, Richard Wagner’s second opera, was released in 2017, a joint production of The Teatro Real, Royal Opera House and The Teatro Colon and directed by Kasper Holten.
Richard Wagner once called his second opera, Das Liebesverbot, a ‘sin of my youth.’ It’s easy to see why. This light-hearted effort offers up any number of ingredients Wagner might have condemned outright had they sprung from a mind other than his own.
Wagner wrote Das Liebesverbot – ‘The Ban on Love’ – in the mid-1830’s, when he was barely 21 years old. As with all his operas, he wrote the libretto himself, basing it on Shakespeare’s play Measure for Measure.
Even the most basic description of the score makes it unique among Wagner’s operas. It’s a comedy. The only other opera he wrote that might be considered comic is Die Meistersinger, but as comedies go, that one would have to be called a heavyweight – clocking in at more than four hours long and hefting some pretty serious themes along the way.
By comparison, Die Meistersinger also shows us another reason for the more mature Wagner to have been less than happy with Das Liebesverbot. Meistersinger famously ends with a sort of paean to the dominance of German art and culture – an element that’s controversial even among Wagner’s most loyal fans.
In Das Liebesverbot, the youthful Wagner took the opposite approach. Along with other young musicians of the time, he was in a rebellious phase. Thematically, the opera strikes a stand against authority – and against German authority in particular. In the opera’s music, Wagner seemed to go out of his way to incorporate every non-German musical element he could think of, using any number of French and Italian operatic conventions in the process; there are many echoes of Rossini. He even made the basic change of pointedly resetting the opera’s action, moving the story from Shakespeare’s original locale, Vienna, to the Sicilian city of Palermo. Considering all that, it’s not surprising that in retrospect, Wagner looked back on his second opera with a bemused eye.
On the other hand, the composer might have been well pleased with the production Wagner Society members watched at their recent meeting. It was very comic and joyous to watch; clever stage solutions, a smartphone duet between brother (Claudio) and sister (Isabella) operetta direction and the arrival of the King (as Angela Merkel) topped off this enjoyable production.
I had forgotten the details of the plot of Shakespeare’s Measure for Measure, believed to have been written in 1603 or 1604. It is interesting to have a look at this play and just how very closely Wagner followed it. Originally published in the First Folio of 1623, where it was listed as a comedy, the play’s first recorded performance occurred in 1604. The play’s main themes include justice, ‘mortality and mercy in Vienna’ and the dichotomy between corruption and purity: ‘some rise by sin, and some by virtue fall.’ Mercy and virtue prevail, as the play does not end tragically, with virtues such as compassion and forgiveness being exercised at the end of the production. While the play focuses on justice overall, the final scene illustrates that Shakespeare intended for moral justice to temper strict civil justice: a number of the characters receive understanding and leniency, instead of the harsh punishment to which they, according to the law, could have been sentenced.
Shakespeare’s Measure for Measure centres around the fate of Claudio, who is arrested by Lord Angelo, the temporary leader of Vienna. Angelo is left in charge by the Duke, who pretends to leave town but instead dresses as a friar to observe the goings-on in his absence. Angelo is strict, moralistic, and unwavering in his decision-making; he decides that there is too much freedom in Vienna and takes it upon himself to rid the city of brothels and unlawful sexual activity. Laws against these behaviours and institutions already exist, and Angelo simply decides to enforce them more strictly. Claudio is arrested for impregnating Juliet, his lover, before they were married. Although they were engaged and their sexual intercourse was consensual, Claudio is sentenced to death in order to serve as an example to the other Viennese citizens.
Isabella, Claudio’s sister, is about to enter a nunnery when her brother is arrested. She is unfailingly virtuous, religious, and chaste. When she hears of her brother’s arrest, she goes to Angelo to beg him for mercy. He refuses, but suggests that there might be some way to change his mind. When he propositions her, saying that he will let Claudio live if she agrees to have sexual intercourse with him, she is shocked and immediately refuses. Her brother agrees at first but then changes his mind. Isabella is left to contemplate a very important decision.
Isabella is, in a way, let off the hook when the Duke, dressed as a friar, intervenes. He tells her that Angelo’s former lover, Mariana, was engaged to be married to him, but he abandoned her when she lost her dowry in a shipwreck. The Duke forms a plan by which Isabella will agree to have sex with the Angelo, but then Mariana will go in her place. The next morning, Angelo will pardon Claudio and be forced to marry Mariana according to the law.
Everything goes as planned, except that Angelo does not pardon Claudio, fearing revenge. The provost and the Duke send him the head of a dead pirate, claiming that it belonged to Claudio, and Angelo believes that his orders were carried out. Isabella is told that her brother is dead, and that she should submit a complaint to the Duke, who is due to arrive shortly, accusing Angelo of immoral acts.
The Duke returns in his usual clothes, saying that he will hear all grievances immediately. Isabella tells her story, and the Duke pretends not to believe her. Eventually, the Duke reveals his dual identity, and everyone is forced to be honest. Angelo confesses to his misdeeds, Claudio is pardoned, and the Duke asks Isabella to marry him.
Wagner hardly changed a scene.
Wagner’s musical contemporary Verdi was similarly a very close follower of Shakespearian plots.
Much thanks to our committee for arranging this enjoyable and rare exposure to a seldom-performed Wagner opera. A great afternoon.
Note: Source material for this article is “Wikipedia” and “World of Opera”.
Comments from Paul Caesar
Lisa Gasteen AO – Being Brünnhilde
Visit from the Society’s Patron – Saturday 9 September 2017
It was very gracious of the Society’s Patron, Lisa Gasteen AO, to discuss with members her wonderful career and what was it like ‘Being Brünnhilde’.
As always Lisa was modest and engaging. “Looking back it seems a lifetime ago. I almost don’t know that person. I am now in a clear space – no directors, no away from family, no flights, no security screening. I don’t really miss it.”
Lisa won the BBC Cardiff Singer of the World in 1991 but did not rush into a Wagnerian career although many offers were made at the time. During the next decade she was based in Italy and sang mostly Italian opera. With encouragement from Simone Young, Lisa began preparing to sing roles in Richard Wagner and Richard Strauss operas. She sang her first full Ring Cycle as Brünnhilde in Meiningen, Germany, in 2001 under the sometimes tortuous direction of Christine Mielitz – difficult stage movements and many intense rehearsals.
Great roles and world fame followed, amongst which were Isolde in Melbourne, London and Paris, Sieglinde and Brünnhilde at New York’s Metropolitan Opera, and Brünnhilde in Adelaide, Stuttgart, Vienna and London.
Lisa described the sensation of singing the Wagnerian roles. “They summon everything that is primitive, intensely emotional and elemental.” We listened to an excerpt from a recording of Lisa’s Adelaide Brünnhilde and one could feel the emotional pull in her voice and its power and glory, exquisitely refined.
Lisa gave immense recognition to her singing teacher Margaret Nickson. She was a person whose musical judgment Lisa trusted implicitly.
The Lisa Gasteen National Opera School has been established at the Queensland Conservatorium, Griffith University.
See Wikipedia reference also.
Lisa wants to give aspiring professional singers a bridge between their formal studies and the opera house. Visiting international singers and conductors are also involved with the coaching.
The School’s partnership with the Queensland Symphony Orchestra also provides valuable professional experience.
Saturday 26 August 2017
Members experienced a very interesting afternoon when Graham Bruce, Colin Mackerras and Peter Bassett shared their personal experiences, reminiscences and DVD excerpts of three Wagner productions they had seen at the Bayreuth Festspielhaus.
There was plenty of interaction between our presenters and members present as many had also been to Bayreuth and had seen the productions that were discussed.
Graham showed the final scene of Götterdämmerung from a 1994 Ring production directed by Alfred Kirchner with James Levine conducting. We saw a relatively bare stage, actors/singers standing on a slice of a suggested world globe and the set devoid of any suggestions of time and place. The costumes of fanciful designs were rather exotic and flamboyant. The audience is drawn into the scene to concentrate only on the principals singing onstage – no distraction with sets or ‘novel’ story lines. The role of Brünnhilde was sung by Deborah Polaski. It reminded me of concepts in the “Amsterdam Ring” directed by Pierre Audi (which is available on DVD). Our members’ reactions were somewhat quizzical and caused debate on the quality of Polaski’s singing.
Colin presented excerpts from all three acts of Parsifal – the 2012 production directed by Stefan Herheim and the conductor Philippe Jordan. Perhaps Colin was up to some mischief with his selection? This was a very, very controversial production at the time with boos from the Bayreuth audience during the performance, unfurling swastika flags on set and alarming references to German ideology during World War II; those were just some of the reports mentioned in the media. However, as suggested by Colin, one should take a more sophisticated review of this production. Colin admitted it was strange: set in Germany not Spain, as an historical parable (not what Wagner intended), political rather than redemptive and conflict versus compassion. When conflict wins over compassion, the outcome can be disastrous for the individual and country. Was this director, at the expense of deliberately reinterpreting Wagner’s directions, showing his audience how music and art can be misappropriated by a crude political ruling class? Graham offered an interesting comment on this production of Parsifal… “Why does one go to plays, music and operas, what is the point if not to be sometimes challenged and newly awakened?”
Peter presented the sublime with an excerpt, a scene from Act 3, from the 1984 production of Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg, directed by Wolfgang Wagner and conducted by Horst Stein. This production was set in a world of historical reality, true to Wagner’s thesis that German States need not look outside Germany for reference to a great culture and the search for national self-esteem was already contained within a German nation. The quintet sung by Bernd Weikl (Hans Sachs), Mari Anne Haggander (Eva), Siegfried Jerusalem (Walther von Stolzing), Graham Clark (David) and Marga Schiml (Magdalene) was stunning to hear and see, and left members wanting more…
These meetings are so stimulating and wonderful to be part of. Our presenters Graham, Colin and Peter are very generous to share their knowledge and enthusiasm with members.
Comments by Paul Caesar
PARSIFAL: what does it all mean? – Dr Stephen Emmerson
Saturday 22 July 2017
I was first introduced to Richard Wagner’s Parsifal – a concert performance – at a Brisbane Bienniale event in May 1995. The programme notes gave this interpretation of What’s it all about?
“Wagner’s sacred saga of Christian redemption and the triumph of good over evil is recognised as one of the mightiest achievements of 19th century art. Set in medieval Spain, Parsifal is an epic work depicting the conflict of good and evil, the opposition and eventual reconciliation of the flesh and the spirit, the possibility of redemption and the quest for wisdom and enlightenment.”
In another Australian production, State Opera South Australia’s of September 2001, their programme notes gave the meaning as:
“The journey of a soul. Wagner uses a medieval legend to explore profound questions from both western and eastern philosophies and religions. The story reflects Parsifal’s inner spiritual journey. Through suffering comes compassion. Through compassion, knowledge, love. By reuniting the Spear with the Grail, the King is healed, a state of grace is restored to the community, and Parsifal finds his true place in the world.”
Those notes then go on the say: “…subtly leading the audience on their own journey of discovery.”
This last line was the thesis that Dr Stephen Emmerson proposed. Whatever Parsifal is all about and whether there is any definitive answer, why insist on one? Its meaning is not static. What Parsifal may mean to someone today may not be what Wagner meant in his day. Has too much knowledge and searching got in its way? Stephen suggests we experience Parsifal as a work-in-progress for each one of us rather than as a conclusion.
Ever since its first performance in 1882 the musical and intellectual world has tried to find explanations for this most complex of Wagner’s operas. As Stephen commented, none of these explanations is probably right or wrong, for Parsifal contains elements which can be seen as Masonic, Buddhist, Christian, homoerotic, sexist, racist, oedipal and concerning end-of-life redemption, and that is just a short list. There is something passive about this opera. There is drama between the characters, but Wagner is not concerned about the motives of the characters, he is presenting their emotional response.
“Wagner shows things acting on people but not people acting on things. We see the characters almost entirely from the inside. The opera is emotionally passive and concerns itself with total renunciation.” (Bryan Magee: Aspects of Wagner.)
Parsifal is thick with parables, symbols and myths. Is Wagner giving us a sermon about the coming of The End? Are the allusions Wagner’s theory on German regeneration? Is it the philosopher Wagner’s final essay, that unless one is truly compassionate (the innocent fool), there is no life, only turmoil and no redemption?
Stephen also discussed how the work should not be seen as a finality or a stand-alone composition. Parsifal makes many references to Wagner’s previous dramas, namely the innocent fool Siegfried, and Brünnhilde listening to Wotan as Kundry listens to Parsifal. German regeneration is also given expression in Die Meistersinger and the Dutchman finds rest through Senta’s love just as Amfortas and Kundry are redeemed through Parsifal’s compassion.
Some noteworthy productions were mentioned:
- The 2013 Metropolitan Opera production of Francois Girard with Jonas Kaufmann in the title role – available on DVD
- Hans Jurgen Syberberg’s film version, which can be viewed on YouTube.
Just to turn the Parsifal theories upside down, this is what Nietzsche had to say about this opera:
“Parsifal is a work of perfidy, of vindictiveness, of a secret attempt to poison the presuppositions of life – a bad work … I despise everyone who does not experience Parsifal as an attempted assassination of basic ethics.”
Stephen’s keyboard illustrations were enjoyed; they give us a few bars to observe when hearing this marvellous opera. Members of the Society attending Sydney Symphony Orchestra’s concert performances in August 2017 will appreciate this ‘before-concert preparation’.
So what is it all about? Stephen’s conclusion is that there is no single meaning; there are many and all sorts of things that pass through this opera Parsifal. The work provokes each of us personally, to find what it means in our current world. The myths, parables and symbols that Wagner uses illuminate our individual human experiences, that thereby, have a universal relevance.
RECITAL – 2016 Encouragement Award Winner – Anastasia Bickel
Saturday 24 June 2017
It was a wonderful experience for Wagner Society members to hear a recital by our 2016 Encouragement Award Winner, Mezzo Soprano/Contralto Anastasia Bickel.
Anastasia’s programme included:
Gluck “Ahime! Dove trascorsi? ….. Che faro senza Euridice?” from Samson et Dalila,
Elgar “Sea Slumber Song” and “The Swimmer” from Sea Pictures,
Wagner Erda’s aria from Das Rheingold
Tchaikovsky Joan of Arc’s aria from TheMaid of Orleans
Her strong, clear and musical voice gave us inspiration that we were listening to a future opera diva. Congratulations to Anastasia for her great achievements so far. She graduated with a Bachelor of Music in Classical Voice (Advanced Performance) from the Queensland Conservatorium Griffith University in 2015 and has performed professionally throughout Australia in oratorios, operatic performances and music festivals. In July 2017 Anastasia is an Australian representative in the final rounds of the Belvedere International Singing Competition (Moscow). Recently she was a prize winner in the National Liederfest (Melbourne).
After Moscow, Anastasia will commence a two-year position as a young artist in the prestigious OperAvenir programme at the Theater Basel, Switzerland.
Anastasia’s piano accompanist was Mark Connors, also a graduate of Queensland Conservatorium. Mark has been working professionally as an accompanist and repetiteur.
The Wagnerians in the audience were delighted when Anastasia sang Erda’s warning to Wotan from Das Rheingold. We hope to hear more!
One song that Anastasia gave filled the room with emotion – Joan of Arc’s aria (words by Schiller). It was beautifully sung and like Joan, Anastasia is leaving her Australian home and family to pursue her career and love of singing. Members wish Anastasia great joy and great success.
“Yes, tis time!
Yoanna must obey the divine will.
But why is fear creeping into my soul?
My heart is aching so painfully!
Forgive me hills, beloved fields;
Welcoming, peaceful, bright valley, forgive me!
Yoanna will not be seeing you again,
Forever she says her farewell!
My friendly fields, my trees, my loved ones,
Without me you will be blossoming and fading!
Oh my cool caves, my speedy currents,
I am leaving you and will never be back again!
These places where everything was healing,
You will be parted with me forever more;
My flocks, I won’t guard you anymore,
You will be lost without faithful pastor.
I was destined to lead a different crowd
Along the fields of a murderous war
That is what divine will has chosen,
And I am not driven by futile desires!
Oh God my heart is opening to you!
It’s sorrowful and suffering.
Of course, for Anastasia, Wagner Society members and an Australian audience will look forward to her triumphant return.
PROVOCATIVE PRODUCTIONS! – Dr Graham Bruce and Dr Peter Bassett
Saturday 22 April 2017
On 22 April, our Vice-President Graham Bruce once again illustrated “different” approaches to the on-going question of how to present Wagner operas on stage, long after the death of their creator, who had had his very precise ideas on the subject.
At the outset, Graham addressed the question of what is now called Regietheater – the German term for opera productions envisaged from the point of view of the stage director rather than the conductor (let alone the composer.)
Over the last, say, forty years and increasingly since the ground-breaking Bayreuth Ring of 1976, it has been the stage director who has had an ever more dictatorial say about how operas are presented. Graham alluded to an increasing self-indulgence on the part of the stage directors, who more and more often are also their own set/costume designers, and under whose direction the singers more-or-less have to adapt their interpretation of their roles.
We witnessed a perfect example of this with a part of Act III of Tannhäuser, in which, thanks to Kasper Holten (2009), Tannhäuser is seen as a poet who did not do things, but who just wrote about them. His over-excited account (a tireless Stig Andersen) of Tannhäuser’s pilgrimage to Rome – the crux of the entire opera: transgression and Christian redemption – made it clear that according to this concept, it quite simply did not happen. The poet merely recited his writings, while Wolfram looked more and more perplexed. This was indeed a Provocative Production! [Image: Kasper Holten – Wagneropera.net – Interview re Tannhäuser]
We then moved to a more concrete vision, with Klaus Guth’s production (inauguration of La Scala, 2013) of Lohengrin, presented by our President, Peter Bassett. From my personal point of view, it was a relief to see two beautiful persons acting, living, a love story (though doomed, as we know). The production, for some reason, led us in Act III to the banks of the Scheldt, where Lohengrin (Jonas Kaufmann in splendid form) and Elsa playfully threw water at each other. (As a singer, I wonder how much these rehearsals were responsible for both the singers cast as Elsa to fall sick, necessitating the last-minute jump-in of a third soprano, the remarkable Annette Dasch.)
[Image: Staatsoper im Schiller Theater – YouTube interview]
Since the excerpt presented was not accompanied by surtitles, Peter Bassett took us through what was going to happen in this scene, enabling those unfamiliar with the text to appreciate to the full the unfolding drama.
After these two excerpts, those present were invited to take part in a discussion with Graham and Peter. One of our new members, Robert Sanderson, had been present at the recent revival of this production in Paris, and was able to give us a most interesting and up to date report.
So, after a tea-break, back a few years to Nikolaus Lehnhoff’s Glyndebourne production (2007) of Tristan und Isolde, with the Act II duet and Brangäne’s warning (with a marvellous Katarina Karneus). Nina Stemme and Robert Gambill were presented in a simple set of stage-wide, stage-high concentric (incomplete) circles, where they, as the saying goes, just stood there and sang (or perhaps sat there and sang). But it was totally convincing – for what on earth should these lovers do, otherwise? The concept of darkness v. light, so central to this dialogue, was brilliantly presented while hated Day approached. [Nikolaus Lehnhoff über Richard Wagners “Ring des Nibelungen” YouTube]
Finally, we saw a great moment from Harry Kupfer’s staging (Berlin, 1992) of a pivotal scene from Act II of Parsifal. As Graham explained, it is notoriously difficult to stage the scene with the Flowermaidens – in this concept it was inextricably linked to the technology of the time, and the singers were seen by Parsifal via a series of TV screens; Poul Elming responded brilliantly to this difficult interaction. Then came the great moment of Kundry’s seduction scene, with the sublime Waltraud Meyer, and all else was forgotten. Here, once again, Peter Bassett made up for the absence of surtitles with a detailed description of what we were about to see. [Harry Kupfer – Foto DPA – Der Tagespiegel]
Thank you, Graham and Peter, for sharing your seemingly inexhaustible collection with us. (Not all of Graham’s DVDs are commercially available, so they are all the more appreciated.)
There followed a discussion and observations that included Nietzsche’s relationship with Wagner – we are a cultured lot, you’ll agree!
A great afternoon, thank you Graham and Peter, and a sincere thank you also to Jennette, who provided us with programs detailing the productions and their interpreters.
WAGNER AND GLUCK – Prof. Michael Ewans
Saturday, 25th March 2017
He has recently published an article* on Pierre Audi’s 2011 double bill production of Gluck’s two ‘Iphigénie operas’ in Amsterdam.
In a most interesting and illuminating lecture, Prof. Ewans coupled two great composers whom I, in my ignorance, had thought of as having had in common only the fact that each in his epoch was a trailblazer. No, what we learned was the intimate knowledge Wagner had of his predecessor, whose music he not only championed during his post as Kapellmeister in Dresden, but whose works he re-translated, re-wrote in part, and re-orchestrated – and, as we subsequently heard, sublimely.
I speak for myself when admitting I had had no previous knowledge of Iphigénie en Aulide (1774). I was familiar with the later Iphigénie en Tauride (1779), which had a splendid production at the Met a few years ago, with Susan Graham as Iphigénie, Matthew Polenzani as Pylade, and a somewhat improbable Placido Domingo as Oreste.
The earlier of these two ‘Greek’ operas, was – to quote Prof. Ewans’s words – ‘the only stage work by any other composer which Wagner ever thought worthy of adapting for performance under his baton’; it contained some magnificent roles, and Prof. Ewans drew parallels with father-child relationships in the Gluck opera and Die Walküre.
We heard, in the historic 1976 Bayreuth version directed by Patrice Chéreau, the great Donald McIntyre, with Wotan’s Act II monologue, and subsequently Agamemnon’s passionate scene from Iphigénie en Aulide, with a remarkable Nicolas Testé in a performance from Amsterdam directed by Pierre Audi.
Both these larger-than-life characters – one a god, the other a godlike king – are shown at the mercy of fate; they were helpless to save their children, in one case Siegmund, in the other Iphigénie.
Prof. Ewans, who has written extensively on this subject, included extracts that showcased Wagner’s directions for the staging of the earlier opera. Having re-translated into German a libretto he found inadequate, and having re-orchestrated the score, Wagner then proceeded to give extremely precise directions regarding the staging, and, most importantly, provided a completely new ending, substituting for Gluck’s Happy End, with the marriage of Iphigénie and Achilles, the far more dramatic intervention of the goddess Diana (Wagner prefers the Greek name, Artemis), who abducts Iphigénie and installs her as her priestess in Tauris, which will, of course, provide the subject for Gluck’s subsequent Iphigénie en Tauride.
Prof. Ewans distributed several extremely helpful pages to illustrate his talk – one showing how Wagner had had to adapt the original French rhythm to the German translation (inter alia, abolishing the tenor’s high A – one wonders if the singer he had in Dresden was not up to it?).
We were also given copious notes regarding the French and German versions of scenes from Iphigénie en Aulide; all the DVD extracts shown were complete with English surtitles.
All present enthusiastically received the lecture – it was a highly enjoyable and enlightening afternoon.
Dr Graham Bruce thanked Prof. Ewans on behalf of everyone there.
Margaret Baker Genovesi
Study Day – Richard Wagner in Switzerland
25 February 2017
Is there any truth in the rumour that our Wagner Society members are booking tours to Switzerland following the wonderful “Richard Wagner in Switzerland” study day?
Peter Bassett and Graham Bruce gave members interesting and exciting presentations on Wagner’s sojourn in Switzerland.
Chronologically, this is how Wagner spent his time in Switzerland:
1849: he was involved in the Dresden uprising and fled to Zurich in exile – he was 36 years old; 1852: completed the text of the cycle Der Ringdes Nibelungen; 1853–1854: began composing the music for Das Rheingold following this immediately 1854–1856 with Die Walküre; 1856: put his composition on Siegfried aside and concentrated on Tristan und Isolde; became an adherent of Schopenhauer and the music rather than the drama evolves as a more commanding role in his operas.
Wagner becomes inspired by and infatuated with the poet-writer Mathilde Wesendonck. From 1853 onwards the Wesendoncks financially supported Wagner in Zurich and in 1857 placed a cottage on their estate at Wagner’s disposal. He composed the Wesendonck Lieder; his marriage with Minna broke up and Wagner left for Venice alone in 1858. He returned to Paris in 1859 and experiences unsuccessful production of Tannhäuser.
In 1862 the political ban that had been placed on Wagner in Germany after he had fled Dresden is lifted and he settles near Wiesbaden on the Rhine and begins work on Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg.
In 1864 King Ludwig II succeeded to the throne of Bavaria. He had a passionate personal adoration of Wagner’s operas and settled Wagner’s considerable debts. Wagner became involved with Cosima, wife of the conductor Hans von Bülow and daughter of Franz Liszt.
In 1865 the affair with Cosima scandalised Munich and leading members of the King’s court, suspicious of Wagner’s influence over Ludwig, forced Wagner to leave Munich. The King assisted Wagner to reside at Villa Tribschen beside Switzerland’s Lake Lucerne.
Minna died in 1866. Wagner lived with Cosima in Luzern and after the birth of Eva and Siegfried, Hans von Bülow agreed to a divorce and Wagner and Cosima married in 1870.
On Christmas day 1870 Wagner arranged a surprise performance of the Siegfried Idyll for Cosima. In this new-found domesticity, Wagner completed the Ring Cycle. In 1871, the Wagners moved to Bayreuth.
Members enjoyed some lavishly brilliant illustrations found by Peter and Graham, with photographs (taken recently by Graham) of places and buildings where Wagner stayed, where he mixed with the local artistic groups and where he went for his very Germanic-style hiking trips.
The excerpts from opera were just great, particularly Waltraud Meier and Ian Storey in Patrice Chereau’s La Scala production of Tristan und Isolde.
We were all were left gasping at the beauty of the Lied Mignon, another musical birthday gift for Cosima from Richard Wagner.